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高三英语复习:非谓语动词解题规则及过程详解

2017-10-12 17:33:23

非谓语动词主要包括to do,-ing和-ed三种形式,可是其用法非常广泛,是高考单项选择题测试的一个重点,同时也是完形填空、阅读理解、短文改错的重要考查内容。为帮助大家能更好地掌握非谓语动词的用法,整理了非谓语动词解题规则,相信可以轻松地应对非谓语动词。

高三英语复习:非谓语动词解题规则及过程详解

【非谓语动词解题规则及过程】

规则一、两个句子必须要用连词连接,如果没有连词连接,则需要用非谓语动词

例1. _________ many times, but he still couldn’t understand it.

A. Having been told B. Having told C. He had been told D. Though he had been told

例2._________ many times, he still couldn’t understand it.

A. Having been told B. Having told C. He had been told D. Though he had told

解析:例1中有连词but连接,表明前后都是句子,所以答案为C。

例2中后面是一个句子,而且没有连词,所以前面不是句子,应该用非谓语动词,根据句意此处为被动,所以答案为A。

规则二、不及物动词无-ed形式非谓语动词,及物动词有宾语时用-ing形式,无宾语时用-ed形式

例3. ____________ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police.

A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing

解析:lose为及物动词,现在后面没有宾语,所以用-ed形式,答案为B。

例4. __________, I really believe that I’d prefer not to make any change now.

A. Considered all the possibilities B. Taking all the possibilities into consideration

C. Taken all the possibilities into consideration D. Giving all the possibilities

解析:把。。。考虑进来结构为take sth into consideration,现在take后面有宾语all the possibilities,所以用-ing形式,答案为B。

规则三、being done 表示“正在被”,一般不作状语,只作定语。非谓语动词的完成时形式to have done或having done强调该动作发生在句子谓语动词之前

例5. __ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead.

A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed

解析:根据句意“我们没有打通电话,就给他们发了个邮件”,没有打通电话应该发生在发邮件之前,所以用having done,答案为D。

例6. Tim Bemers-Lee is generally considered _____ the World Wide Web, on which all the information is shared by all.

A. to have founded B. having founded C. founding D. to found

解析:根据句意,Tim Bemers-Lee创立万维网应该是过去的事情,而且be considered后面应该用动词不定式,所以应该用to have done,答案为A。非谓语动词作定语时[/page]

规则四、非谓语动词作定语时,表示将来用-to do,表正在进行用-ing,表示已经完成用-ed

例7. The play_____ next month aims mainly to reflect the local culture.

A.produced B.being produced

C.to be produced D.having been produced

解析:根据本题中的时间状语next month,可知the play将要于下月被创作出来,表将来应该用to do,所以答案为C。

例8.The trees _____ in the storm have been moved off the road.

A. being blown down B. blown down C. blowing down D. to blow down

解析:根据句意“被暴风雨刮倒的树已经从路上移走了”,树被刮倒是过去已经完成的动作,表已经完成用-ed形式,所以答案为B。

规则五、介词后跟-ing形式,可以在-ing前加逻辑主语

例9. The discovery of new evidence led to ______________.

A. the thief having been caught B. the thief to be caught

C. catch the thief D. the thief being caught

解析:本题led to中的to是介词,后面应该用-ing形式,the thief作-ing的逻辑主语,所以答案为D。

例10. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ____ could be heard outside the classroom.

A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed

C. being opened and closed D. to open and close

解析:本题the noise of中的of是介词,后面应该用-ing形式,desks作-ing的逻辑主语,所以答案为C。

规则六、-ing形式或to do可作主语或宾语,-ed形式则不可以

例11. ___________ in a heavy traffic jam is quite an unpleasant experience.

A. Caught B. Having caught C. Being caught D. To catch

解析:本题中is为系动词,前面应该作主语,用-ing形式,所以答案为C。

例12 ___twice a year, whether it is a car or a bus or a truck, is the rule that every driver must obey in this city.

A. Examining B. Examined C. Being examined D. Having been examined

解析:本题中is为系动词,前面应该作主语,用-ing形式,所以答案为C。be+-ed+介词结构[/page]

规则七、be+-ed+介词结构常可把be去掉保留-ed+介词做状语

例13Michael’s new house is like a huge palace, ______with his old one.

A. comparing B. compares C. to compare D. compared

解析:“和。。。相比较”结构为be compared with,现在做句子的状语,所以只保留非谓语动词,把动词be去掉,答案为D。

例14 _______ with a difficult situation, Arnold decided to ask his boss for advice.

A. To face B. Having faced C. Faced D. Facing

解析:“面对”结构为be faced with, 现在做句子的状语,所以只保留非谓语动词,把动词be去掉,答案为C。

规则八、非谓语动词作状语,其逻辑主语必须和句子主语保持一致,和句子主语构成主谓关系时用-ing形式,构成动宾关系是用-ed形式。其逻辑主语和句子主语不一致时,要在非谓语动词前加逻辑主语,构成独立主格结构

例15. ____ twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we changed our dog.

A. Being bitten B. Bitten C. Having bitten D. To be bitten

解析:本题考查非谓语动词作状语,其逻辑主语应和句子主语the postman一致,the postman应该是被咬,所以答案为B。

例16._______ in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring.

A. To walk. B. Walking C. Walked D. Having walked

解析:本题考查非谓语动词作状语,其逻辑主语应和句子主语he一致, he 和walk应该是主动关系,所以答案为B。

例17. While watching television, __________.

A. the doorbell rang B. the doorbell rings

C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings

解析:根据“非谓语动词作状语,其逻辑主语必须和句子主语保持一致”的规则,watching的逻辑主语应和后面句子主语一致,所以句子主语应为“we”,答案为C。

例18. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons ____ for the day.

A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished

解析:本题没有连词,所以后面应用非谓语动词,the lessons是非谓语动词的逻辑主语,和非谓语动词构成独立主格结构。根据句意应是“被完成”,所以答案为B。不定式做状语[/page]

规则九、不定式做状语一般有两种:目的状语和出乎意料的结果状语(表示顺其自然的结果用-ing形式)。另外,某些形容词(表喜、怒、哀、乐)做表语后跟不定式可以表示原因

例19._____, you need to give all you have and try your best.

A Being a winner B To be a winner C Be a winner D Having been a winner

解析:根据句意“要想成为获胜者,你要付出所有,尽最大努力”,此处表目的,所以答案为B。

例20. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only _______ the film stars had left.

A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told

解析:本句句意为“记者们匆匆赶到机场,却被告知明星们已经走了”,表出乎意料的结果常常用only to do,所以答案为B。

例21. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance, ________ in the natural light during the day.

A. to let B. letting C. let D. having let

解析:本题句意为“玻璃门替换了木头门,自然光就进来了”,自然光进来时顺其自然的结果,所以用doing, 答案为B。

例22.How glad I am ___________ you!

A. seeing B. to see C. saw D. having seen

解析: 本题是I am glad to see you 的感叹句形式,to see you 是原因状语,答案为B。

规则十、非谓语动词的否定规则是在非谓语动词前加not,有not to do, not doing, not having done, not to have done几种形式

例23______that he was in great danger, Eric walked deeper into the forest.

A. Not realized B. Not to realize C. Not realizing D. Not to have realized

解析:本题考查doing的否定形式not doing,答案为 C。

例24. What worried him most was ______ to visit his sick child.

A. his being not allowed B. his not being allowed

C. his not allowing D. having not been allowed

解析:本题考查being done的否定形式not being done; his 为not being done的逻辑主语,所以答

案为B。

例25. Sarah has decided ________ away on holiday this summer.

A. don’t go B. to not go C. not going D. not to go

解析:本题考查to do的否定形式not to do, 所以答案为D。练习题[/page]

【练习题】

1.Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could _______ a good college.

A.enter B.to enter C.entering D.entered

【陷阱】容易误选A。有的同学一看到空格前的情态动词 could 就断定此处应填动词原形 enter。

【分析】其实正确答案应是B。此句为省略句,即在 could 后省略了动词 do,若把句子补完整应为Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could do to enter a good college。即句中的不定式短语(to enter a good college)是用作目的状语的,而不是与情态动词(could)一起构成谓语。请再看类似例句:

(1) They did what they could to comfort her. 他们尽量安慰她。

(2) They did everything they could to save her life. 他们尽一切力量拯救她的性命。

(3) He studies as hard as he could to catch up with his classmates. 他拼命学习以便赶上他的同学。

值得指出的是,这也并不是说今后只要遇到类似结构的题就一定选带to不定式。请看以下试题:

(4) He ran as fast as he could _____ to catch the early bus.

A. to hopeB. hope

C. hopingD. hoped

此题的答案是 C不是A,其中的现在分词短语 hoping to catch the early bus 用作伴随状语。

(5) He spent every minute he could _____ spoken English.

A. practiseB. to practise

C. practisingD. practised

此题答案选 C,这与前面动词 spent 的搭配有关,即 spend ... (in) doing sth。若将此句补充完整,即为 He spent every minute he could spend in practising spoken English.

(6) Before going abroad he devoted all he could _______ his oral English.

A. improveB. to improve

C. improvingD. to improving

此题答案选D,注意两点:一是 devote ... to ... 是固定搭配,意为"把......贡献给......";二是其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时要用动名词。

2.He knows nothing about it, so he can't help _______ any of your work.

A. doingB. to do C. being doingD. to be done

【陷阱】容易误选A,根据 can't help doing sth 这一结构推出。

【分析】其实答案应选B。比较以下结构:

can't help to do sth = 不能帮助做某事

can't help doing sth = 禁不住做某事,情不自禁地做某事

又如下面一题,答案也是 B:

She can't help ____ the house because she's busy making a cake.

A cleaningB. to clean

C. cleanedD. being cleaned

再请看以下试题:

While shopping, people sometimes can't help _____ into buying something they don't really need.

A. to persuadeB. persuading

C. being persuadedD. be persuaded

此题应选C,句中的 can't help 意为"禁不住"(注意根据句意用被动形式)。

3.All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films.

A.devoted to do B. devoted to doing C.devoting to doing D. is devoted to doing

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】此题最佳答案为B。现分析如下:

(1) devote 意为"致力于,献身于",主要用 devote...to...或be devoted to,其中的to 是介词,不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不用不定式。

(2) 选A错误:若将 do 改为 doing 则可以。

(3) 选B正确:all her time devoted to doing experiments为独立主格结构,用作状语。

(4) 选C错误:因为all her time 与 devote 为被动关系,故应将devoting改为devoted。

(5) 选D错误:若单独看 All her time is devoted to doing experiments,此句并没有错,但问题是逗号前后两个简单句没有必要的连接方式,所以从整体上看仍不对,假若在后一句的句首加上and或so,则可选D,或将D将中的is 改为 being也可选它。

请做以下类似题(答案均选A):

(1) All the preparations for the project ______, we're ready to start.

A. completed B. have been completed

C. had been completed D. been completed

(2) Such _______ the case, I couldn't help but______ him.

A. being, support B. was, support

C. has been, supporting D. is, to support

比较以下各题,答案选B,因为句中使用了并列连词and:

(1) All the preparations for the project ______, and we're ready to start.

A. completed B. have been completed

C. had been completed D. been completed

(2) Such _______ the case, I couldn't help but______ him.

A. being, support B. was, support

C. has been, supporting D. is, to support

知识点是同学们提高总体学习成绩的重要途径,非谓语动词解题规则为大家巩固相关重点,让我们一起学习,一起进步吧!

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